Do statins really increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease?

Statins are famous, and their fame lies in their ability to bust cholesterol, the villain in many medical disorders such as heart attack (myocardial infarction) and stroke. Some may add that statins are infamous, and this is partly because of their side effects such as muscle pain. Love them or hate them, we can’t get away from […]

via Do statins really increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease? — The Neurology Lounge


The 13 most dreadful neurological disorders…and the groups standing up to them

Neurology embodies some of the most dreadful diseases known to man. Every neurological disorder is disheartening, each characterised by unique frustrations for patients and their families. It is difficult to quantify the distress and misery these afflictions impose on their victims, and even harder to appreciate the despair and anguish they evoke in those who […]

via The 13 most dreadful neurological disorders…and the groups standing up to them — The Neurology Lounge

When Shakespeare meets neurology: Hamlet, Ophelia and autoimmune encephalitis

Neurology can’t seem to get away from autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. This blog has visited this topic several times before such as with the posts titled What are the dreadful autoimmune disorders that plague neurology? and What’s evolving at the cutting-edge of autoimmune neurology? The attraction of autoimmune neurological diseases lies in part in the […]

via When Shakespeare meets neurology: Hamlet, Ophelia and autoimmune encephalitis — The Neurology Lounge

How does gender influence neuromyelitis optica?

Influence of female sex and fertile age on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

Borisow N, Kleiter I, Gahlen A, et al; NEMOS (Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group)

Mult Scler 2016; Epub ahead of print



Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases.


To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)).


Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset.


A total of 186 NMO/SD patients (82% female) were included. In AQP4-ab-positive patients, female predominance was most pronounced during fertile age (female-to-male ratio 23:1). Female patients were more likely to be positive for AQP4-abs (92% vs 55%; p < 0.001). Interval between onset and diagnosis of NMO/SD was longer in women than in men (mean 54 vs 27 months; p = 0.023). In women, attacks occurring ⩽40 years of age were more likely to show complete remission ( p = 0.003) and better response to high-dose intravenous steroids ( p = 0.005) compared to woman at >40 years.


Our data suggest an influence of sex and age on susceptibility to AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD. Genetic and hormonal factors might contribute to pathophysiology of NMO/SD.

This reference is now cited in the neurochecklist:

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO): clinical features

Abstract link

By OpenStax College – Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site., Jun 19, 2013., CC BY 3.0, Link

Does positional vertigo really increase the risk of dementia?

Association of dementia in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

Lo MH, Lin CL, Chuang E, Chuang TY, Kao CH.

Acta Neurol Scand 2017; 135:197-203.



We conducted a cohort study to investigate whether benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is correlated with an increased risk of dementia.


We established a case cohort comprising 7818 patients aged over 20 years who were diagnosed with BPPV from 2000 to 2010. In addition, we formed a control cohort by randomly selecting 31,272 people without BPPV and matched them with the BPPV patients according to gender, age, and index year. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of dementia after we adjusted for demographic characteristics and comorbidity.


The prevalence of comorbidity was higher among patients with BPPV than among those without BPPV. In addition, patients with BPPV exhibited a 1.24-fold (95% confidence interval, CI 1.09-1.40; P < 0.001) higher risk of dementia than those without BPPV after we adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidity. An analysis stratified according to demographic factors revealed that women with BPPV exhibited a 1.36-fold (95% CI 1.16-1.59; P < 0.001) higher risk of dementia. Patients with BPPV aged over 65 years exhibited a significantly higher risk of dementia (adjusted HR: 1.26; 95% CI 1.10-1.43; P < 0.001) than those without BPPV.


Patients with BPPV exhibited a higher risk of dementia than those without BPPV.

This reference is now included in the neurochecklist:

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): posterior canal

Abstract link

Eyes of the vertigo stairs. Josh Liba on Flikr.

Primary angiitis of the CNS: unusual presentations of a rare and dangerous disorder

Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is inflammation of the blood vessels of the central nervous system (stating the obvious you might say). It differs from other forms of angiitis or vasculitis, such as lupus and giant cell arteritis (GCA), which respect no boundaries. PACNS is as dangerous a neurological disorder as they come, and just as rare. It […]

via Primary angiitis of the CNS: unusual presentations of a rare and dangerous disorder — The Neurology Lounge

Does hepatitis B virus really protect against stroke?

Association of hepatitis B virus infection with decreased ischemic stroke.

Tseng CH, Muo CH, Hsu CY, Kao CH.

Acta Neurol Scand 2016; 134:339-345.



Inflammatory processes (both infections and autoimmune diseases) may cause endothelial dysfunction and arterial atherosclerosis, subsequently increasing the risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In this investigation, we analyzed the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and AIS risk.


A Taiwan national insurance claims data set of 1,000,000 patients was used to extract 22,303 patients with HBV and 89,212 randomly selected sex- and age-matched controls from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2006. Both groups were followed up until the appearance of AIS or the end of 2011. AIS risk was measured using the Cox proportional regression model.


After adjusting for the relevant covariates, the HBV group exhibited a lower AIS risk (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-0.89) compared with the controls at the end of follow-up. Under the condition of no comorbidities, patients with HBV had a lower AIS risk compared with the controls (aHR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.48-0.87). In 3 age-stratified subgroups, HBV was correlated with a significantly diminished risk of AIS (age ≤ 49 years: aHR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.39-0.82; age 50-64 years: aHR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.53-0.80; age ≥ 65 years: aHR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.76-1.23).


HBV was correlated with a reduced risk of acute ischaemic stroke development. Although a decrease in AIS risk was noted in the patients with HBV, preventing the development of AIS in this population warrants further attention.

This abstract is now included in the neurochecklist:

Ischaemic stroke: non-genetic risk factors

Abstract link

Edaravone (Radicava) approved to treat MND in USA – what does this mean for people with MND in the UK

On Friday 5 May in America, the FDA, the organisation that approves drugs, announced that they’d granted a licence for the drug known as a Edaravone (to be marketed as Radicava ) for the treatment of MND. It’s extremely exciting news and we’re currently working out what this means for people with MND in the […]

via Edaravone (Radicava) approved to treat MND in USA – what does this mean for people with MND in the UK — MND Research Blog

Migraine and the challenge of white matter lesions in the brain

Neurologists often refer their patients with headache for a brain MRI scan. Quite often the reason for this is to reassure their patients who are worried about a sinister cause for their headache…and the anxiety provoking culprit is usually a brain tumour. The headache is often a migraine which has recently changed in character, or which is defying […]

via Migraine and the challenge of white matter lesions in the brain — The Neurology Lounge

Blog at

Up ↑