Is inflammatory bowel disease a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease?

Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and incidence of parkinson disease among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Peter I, Dubinsky M, Bressman S, et al.

JAMA Neurol 2018 (Epub ahead of print).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite established genetic and pathophysiologic links between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Parkinson disease (PD), clinical data supporting this association remain scarce. Although systemic inflammation is considered a potential biological mechanism shared between the 2 diseases, the role of reduced systemic inflammation through IBD-directed anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in PD risk is largely unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the incidence of PD among individuals with or without IBD and to assess whether PD risk among patients with IBD is altered by anti-TNF therapy.

METHODS:

This is a retrospective cohort study analyzing information in the Truven Health MarketScan administrative claims database and the Medicare Supplemental Database between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2016. Individuals were selected who had at least 2 claims for IBD diagnoses, at least 6 months of follow-up, and no prior diagnosis of PD on or before the IBD index date. Exposure to Anti-TNF therapy was measured from the anti-TNF index date to the last date of anti-TNF coverage or the end of enrollment or PD index date, whichever was earliest. Incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated, and crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression models and presented with 95% CIs.

RESULTS:

In total, 144 018 individuals with IBD were matched on age, sex, and year of index date with 720 090 unaffected controls. Of them, 1796 individuals had at least 2 PD diagnoses and at least 1 filled PD-related prescription. The mean (SD) age of individuals with IBD was 51 (17) years, and 44% were men. The incidence of PD among patients with IBD was 28% higher than that among unaffected matched controls (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.44; P < .001). A 78% reduction in the incidence rate of PD was detected among patients with IBD who were exposed to anti-TNF therapy compared with those who were not exposed (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05-0.88; P = .03).

CONCLUSIONS:

A higher incidence of Parkinson’s disease was observed among patients with inflammatory bowel disease than among individuals without IBD. Early exposure to antiinflammatory anti-TNF therapy was associated with substantially reduced PD incidence. These findings support a role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Further studies are required to determine whether anti-TNF treatment administered to high-risk individuals may mitigate PD risk.

This article is cited in the neurochecklist:

Parkinson’s disease (PD): risk factors

Abstract link

Normal brain. NIH Image Gallery on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/nihgov/26680098405
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