Anti-LGI1 encephalitis is associated with unique HLA subtypes.
Kim TJ, Lee ST, Moon J, et al.
Ann Neurol 2017; 81:183-192.
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE), represented by anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (anti-LGI1) and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, has increasing clinical significance based on recent discoveries of neuronal autoantibodies. However, its immunopathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether AE is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) subtypes.
We compared the HLA genotypes of 11 anti-LGI1 and 17 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients to the control groups, which consisted of 210 epilepsy patients and 485 healthy Koreans.
Anti-LGI1 encephalitis was associated with the DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 haplotype (10 patients; 91%) in HLA class II genes, as well as with B*44:03 (8 patients; 73%) and C*07:06 (7 patients; 64%) in the HLA class I region. The prevalence of these alleles in anti-LGI1 encephalitis was significantly higher than that in the epilepsy controls or healthy controls. By contrast, anti-NMDAR encephalitis was not associated with HLA genotypes. Additional analysis using HLA-peptide binding prediction algorithms and computational docking underpinned the close relationship.
This finding suggests that most anti-LGI1 encephalitis develops in a population with specific HLA subtypes, providing insight into a novel disease mechanism.
van Sonderen A, Roelen DL, Stoop JA, et al. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis is strongly associated with HLA-DR7 and HLA-DRB4. Ann Neurol 2017; 81:193-198.