What are the emerging drug treatments for Parkinson’s disease (1)?

Opicapone as an adjunct to levodopa in patients with Parkinson’s disease and end-of-dose motor fluctuations: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial

Ferreira JJ, Lees A, Rocha JF, et al; Bi-Park 1 investigators.

Lancet Neurol 2016; 15:154-165

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Opicapone is a novel, once-daily, potent third-generation catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of opicapone as an adjunct to levodopa compared with placebo or entacapone in patients with Parkinson’s disease and motor fluctuations.

METHODS:

We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled trial of opicapone as an adjunct to levodopa in patients with Parkinson’s disease with end-of-dose motor fluctuations. Patients aged 30-83 years were enrolled at 106 specialist centres across 19 European countries and Russia and were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) by a proprietary computer-generated sequence to oral treatment with opicapone (5 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg once daily), placebo, or entacapone (200 mg with every levodopa intake) for 14-15 weeks. Patients and investigators (ie, outcome assessors) were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to end of study treatment in absolute time in the off state, as assessed by daily paper patient diaries; the primary analysis followed a hierarchical procedure for each opicapone dose in which superiority compared with placebo in the full analysis set was first tested and then, if positive, non-inferiority to entacapone was tested in the per-protocol set with a margin of 30 min. This trial is registered with EudraCT, 2010-021860-13, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01568073.

FINDINGS:

Between March 31, 2011, and Nov 30, 2013, of 679 patients screened, 600 were randomly assigned. 590 patients were included in the full analysis set (120 in the placebo group, 120 in the entacapone group, 119 in the opicapone 5 mg group, 116 in the opicapone 25 mg group, and 115 in the opicapone 50 mg group) and 537 in the per-protocol set (112 in the placebo group, 104 in the entacapone group, 110 in the opicapone 5 mg group, 105 in the opicapone 25 mg group, and 106 in the opicapone 50 mg group). The mean change in time in the off state was -56·0 min (SE 13·4; 95% CI -82·3 to -29·7) for placebo, -96·3 min (13·4; -122·6 to -70·0) for entacapone, -91·3 min (13·5; -117·7 to -64·8) for opicapone 5 mg, -85·9 min (13·7; -112·8 to -59·1) for opicapone 25 mg, and -116·8 min (14·0; -144·2 to -89·4) for opicapone 50 mg. Treatment with opicapone 50 mg was superior to placebo (mean difference in change from baseline -60·8 min, 95% CI -97·2 to -24·4; p=0·0015) and non-inferior to entacapone (-26·2 min, -63·8 to 11·4; p=0·0051). Treatment with opicapone 5 mg (p=0·056) or 25 mg (p=0·080) was not significantly different from treatment with placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 60 (50%) of 121 patients in the placebo group, 69 (57%) of 122 in the entacapone group, 63 (52%) of 122 in the opicapone 5 mg group, 65 (55%) of 119 in the opicapone 25 mg group, and 62 (54%) of 115 in the opicapone 50 mg group. The most common adverse events were dyskinesia (in five patients in the placebo group, ten in the entacapone group, 17 in the opicapone 5 mg group, nine in the opicapone 25 mg group, and 18 in the opicapone 50 mg group), insomnia (in one, seven, two, seven, and seven patients, respectively), and constipation (in three, five, four, none, and seven patients, respectively). Serious adverse events were reported in six patients in the placebo group, eight in the entacapone group, four each in the opicapone 5 mg and opicapone 50 mg groups, and one in the opicapone 25 mg group.

INTERPRETATION:

The addition of opicapone 50 mg to levodopa treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease and end-of-dose motor fluctuations could enables a simplified drug regimen that allows physicians to individually tailor the existing levodopa daily regimen, by potentially reducing the total daily levodopa dose, increasing the dosing interval, and ultimately reducing the number of intakes, thereby maximising its benefit.

This reference is now included in the neurochecklist:

Parkinson’s disease (PD): emerging treatments

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Abstract link

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Public Domain, Link

 

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